Purpose – The literature on leadership will not take gender dynamics in the lives of females leaders into account, therefore one has to go beyond the literature on leadership to get insight into ladies leadership. The purpose of the study is to find the various challenges that ladies in leadership positions are confronted with and how they possess turned them into opportunities.
Design/methodology/approach – That is a descriptive research that used purposive and snowball sampling strategies. Data was collected by the use of questionnaire from women leaders in Ghana and Microsoft Excel and Statistical Package deal for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16.0) were used to analyse the data collected.
Findings – The analysis revealed that females assume leadership position because they are motivated by self achievement. Combining family and function life and lack of support from other females were seen as the main challenges women in leadership positions are met with but have the ability to cope with these problems through delegation, effective period management and activities that help reduce stress.
Originality/value – Because of the scarcity of exploration on breaking of the glass ceiling especially in growing countries, this research makes a major contribution to the literature on issues women confront in leadership positions and what motivates them.
Paper type – Research paper
Entrenched social-cultural stereotypes against females cut across colour. In this modern day, there are people who still think that women are incapable of leading. These women usually find themselves undermined especially if they eventually climb the cultural strata. This type of thinking devalues human being liberation efforts.
Mary Kay Ash; a famous leader in entrepreneurship and a motivational speaker once explained "don’t limit you to ultimately what they think that you can do, go so far as your mind enables you to; what you believe, you can perform". This speech of this woman leader brings to light the degree to which girls were previously marginalized either by their own personal inclination or by the contemporary society in terms of leadership position.
A study of just one 1,200 executives in eight countries, like the U.S., Australia, Austria and the Philippines indicated that about 70% of women of all ages and 57% of males believe an invisible barrier–a glass ceiling–prevents ladies from getting ahead running a business (Clarke, 2006). There’s been much analysis and conjecture concerning the barriers girls face in trying to climb the corporate ladder, with data suggesting that they typically confront a ‘glass ceiling’ while men are more likely to reap the benefits of a ‘glass escalator'(Ryan and Haslam, 2007).
The term `The Glass Ceiling’ was actually coined in an content by Gay Bryant in 1984. In 1991the US Division of Labour described it as an "artificial barriers based on attitudinal or organisational bias that prevent certified people from advancing upward within their organization into management-level positions." The word has been extended to include glass cliff and glass elevator or escalator. Glass elevator or escalator can be an invisible auto that transports men up through the ranks of corporate vitality while glass cliff identifies precarious positions that receive to women (who can break the cup ceiling) which are set ups to utter professional disaster of inability. Though cup ceiling is figurative, girls who bump their heads on it think it is very real.
Undoubtedly, an array of theoretical explanations have been proposed to make sense of cup ceilings (Barreto et al., 2010; Eagly & Carli, 2007). Some evolutionary psychologists describe glass ceilings as a by-product of natural selection, resulting from hard-wired adaptations that raised the success of the human species over the last 20,000 years (Browne, 2006; Buss, 1995). Mostly, the scarcity of feminine leaders is associated with ongoing prejudice and discrimination against women in the workplace (Weyer, 2007). For example, Fassinger (2008) cites girls being denied usage of the old boys’ golf club, tokenism, shadow jobs (girls being subjected to extra scrutiny), and also a lack of mentors and role versions as forming a program of barriers acting against ladies. Women who become moms often encounter an array of prejudice against a better job that creates a maternal wall structure (Crosby et al., 2004).
Several researchers emphasize gender variations as the major reason behind gender inequality in leadership. Olsson (2002) gives a qualitative evaluation which uses ancient Greek heroes Ulysses and Xena as a double-metaphor for various ways men and women seek out satisfying careers. Hakim (2006) proposes her desire theory citing gender distinctions in life goals, values, talents and competitive behaviour. O’Connor (2001) hypothesizes that the existence of cup ceilings is largely because of ‘different needs’ between men and women. She sums up these distinctions with an increase of metaphors: women prefer job trees whilst guys are much more likely to climb career ladders.
Following the adoption of the 1995 Beijing declaration and platform to use it, the president of Ghana Professor John Evans Fiifi Atta Mills in his address on the occasion of the 64th session of the united nations basic assembly said Ghana offers spared no effort in applying the Beijing system goals and offers amply demonstrated its dedication to promoting and making sure gender equality and women’s empowerment through concrete administrative, legal and constitutional means. This he said can be lucidly testified by the appointment of professional women of all ages occupying high office buildings (Mills, 2009).
The role of women in politics and the public office is now one of the current burning governance problems as a result of the perceived and acknowledged potential and contribution of females to governance operations. Botey (2010) explained Ghana could have been like heaven if many women had provided themselves to decision building and participated fully in the decentralisation programmes of the nation because women are extremely difficult to convince to accomplish things which would not in favor of them in future. The developing percentage of ladies in leadership position currently will affirm the declaration that women have come a long way and so are now achieving much more in society. Buying the education of young girls is now seen as one of the effective long-term methods to reduce poverty-by minimizing fertility and raising marketable skills among others.
Women today are more educated, additional employed, and utilized at higher levels today than ever before, but they remain generally pigeonholed in "pink-collar" jobs, in line with the American Association of University Girls (AAUM). Women of all ages leaders face many exclusive challenges at the place of work due to combinations of public and cultural stereotyping, gender violence which come about therefore of traditional attitude, the task of leadership, the challenge of family duties, and that from the girl own personal inclination.
Statement of the Problem
Despite the results of the Beijing Meeting, the decades of firm and legislative support for gender equality, there is still an attitudinal and organizational bias in the workforce that stops ladies from advancing to leadership location. This is known as glass ceiling. Girls start careers running a business and other occupation with the same level of intelligence, education and commitment as men, however comparatively few reach the very best echelons. Women leaders are still as scarce in the university corridors and corporate boardroom because they were 30 years back (Noble and Moore, 2006).
The question now could be why are females who face challenges which is often extremely www.testmyprep.com hurtful and demoralizing right now jumping over hurdles to the top? Are there no more challenges to avoid these females from making issues happen? If there will be, what are they? What are their coping strategies and success factors? These queries are what this review seeks to answer as it unfolds into particulars the challenges of ladies in leadership position in the corporate world.
This is definitely a Descriptive research study. Descriptive research will not fit neatly into the explanation of either quantitative or qualitative exploration methodologies, but instead it can utilize components of both, sometimes within the same review. The term descriptive research identifies the sort of research question, style, and data analysis that will be applied to confirmed topic. Descriptive figures tell what is, while inferential statistics make an effort to determine cause and effect (Association for Educational Communities and Technology, 2001).
The study employed both quantitative and qualitative exploration method of gather data. The utilization of quantitative methodology alone would have been beneficial since it allows for replication (Hubbard and Ryan, 2000) which virtually all researchers argue that it offers genuine scientific knowledge. It really is even so argued that "replication with expansion" is an extremely suitable means of knowledge creation (Hubbard and Ryan, 2000; Rosenthal and Rosnow, 1984).
Since this analysis was a descriptive one, questionnaire was made with three sections: the first of all section covered biographical details, the second section covered closed finished questions (quantitative data) and the previous section was predicated on open-ended kind of questions (qualitative data). A pilot review was carried out in Kumasi to identify whether things in the questionnaire and structured interview routine were clear more than enough to elicit the appropriate responses.
The target population was females leaders in corporate environment, and the sample of the analysis was 100 and made up of urban women employed in a corporate organization context in Ghana. The analysis applied purposive sampling as the target was women in leadership position in the organization world. As a way to reach our sample size the snowball sampling was utilized. Data was predicated on both key and secondary sources. The primary data contains responses to the questionnaire administered to the participants. The secondary data was from the various academic journals and textbooks. The full total sample size for the analysis was 100 girls with 36%
from the Program organisations, 25% from the manufacturing businesses, 16% from educational organizations, 11% from financial corporations and 2% from Compact and Medium Enterprises. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16.0) and Excel were employed to analyse the data gathered.
The general objective of the research was to find the various challenges that ladies in leadership positions in the organization world are confronted with and how they contain turned them into opportunities to break the glass ceiling to come to be where they are; consequently making their encounters visible to motivate and influence other women of all ages towards the accomplishment of their goals.
The specific objectives of the analysis are to dicsover:
what motivates women to aspire for leadership positions.
the challenges women in leadership position in the organization world experience in Ghana.
the coping strategies of ladies in leadership location in Ghana.
how women in leadership position can succeed despite the challenges they experience.
Considering the objectives mentioned above, this research seeks to answer the next questions about women in leadership positions in the organization world in Ghana:
What factors motivate ladies to aspire for leadership positions?
What will be the challenges that confront women in their bid to lead?
What coping tactics are working to overcome the issues connected with their positions as leaders?
How did these women advance with their present positions?
Relevance of the Study
One of the considerable debates among academics is why women in leadership usually do not fit comfortably in the original and narrowly made leadership variations. The literature on leadership will not contain many voices, encounters and challenges of ladies, nor does it supply the theoretical basis to task systems of biases and discrimination against females with regards to privileges and power; hence this study will help expand the knowledge on leadership to incorporate additional awareness of the challenges of women in leadership position in the organization world.
This will demand gender sensitivity stand on leadership to make the challenges of women of all ages leaders in the organization world visible and also valuable. This study will also assist in preventing academics from falling in to the trap of confining girls to places already defined for them as their recommended roles (the kitchen). Last however, not the least, it will help to show a framework that works extremely well by other females aspiring to be leaders to contain mentors that take the environment on a trip from gender segregation to sociable justice.`
This section reviews the literature associated with women in leadership position in the organization world. The review identifies the motivations, difficulties, coping strategies and accomplishment elements which facilitates the creation of women in leadership positions
The desires to understand, define, and describe the essence of leadership features interested researchers and scholars for the majority of the twentieth century. Many of these explanations have centered on an individual and his or her personal qualities and abilities. Social scientists have tried to recognize what abilities, characteristics, behaviours, resources of power or areas of the situation regulate how effective a leader will be able to influence others.
Yan and Hunt (2005) establish leadership as a cultural phenomenon involving "â€¦A method whereby intentional affect is extended by one person over other people to guide, structure and facilitate actions and relations in an organization or organization." This explanation implies that the potency of a leader is founded on his or her ability to influence, guide and achieve certain outcomes and achievements predicated on his or her position, abilities, activities and relationships rather than the gender.
Rost (1993) known the shift from the commercial concept of leadership to a paradigm he telephone calls the post-industrial concept of leadership composing of four fundamental components:
The relationship is founded on influence
Leaders and followers are the persons in this relationship
Leaders and followers intend real changes
The shifts the leaders and fans intend reflect their mutual purposes
A modern study of leadership emphasizes that leadership can be a relationship between the leader and the people being led. In what of preferred leadership theorist Ken Blanchard, "Leadership isn’t something you carry out to persons. It’s something you perform with them". Analysis indicates that having good relationships with group members is a major success factor (DuBrin, 2010:4).
Leadership and Women
The cup ceiling metaphor is generally used to describe the obstacles and barriers in front of women seeking offers to the top degrees of businesses (Burke and Vinnicombe, 2005).
Newer paradigms of leadership give attention to the capacity of leaders to make or handle change (Alimo-Metcalfe & Alban Metcalfe, 2005), leadership models include charismatic leadership, visionary leadership and transformational leadership. Older popular definitions concentrate on an individual (Barker 2001) usually male who exhibits traits that are generally considered masculine.
Whichever approach is used – classic definitions or the newer paradigms – women do not match the frame do the job. Given such exclusion, how do we appreciate women’s leadership? Carry out they develop their leadership frame work from their personal activities as women? (Parker 2001)
The African perception on knowledge and leadership has a lot related to her colonization historical backdrop. Most Africans were designed to think that their knowledge system was primitive and that as Africans they desired white leadership to make it through. Songca (2006:226) declares that African indigenous knowledge devices were overlooked and undermined. This is further filtered to women of all ages who according to the African traditions were classified together with children and for that reason their functions were undermined.
Ritt (2004) views the changing landscape running a business as actually favouring ladies; as women of all ages can "naturally" cope with inner contradictions, ambiguity and complexity and are more liquid and adaptable to meet the needs of a quickly changing workplace. However, the immediate problem facing women of all ages and the leadership concern is not so much whether females have the attributes necessary for successful leadership functions facing institutions in the brand new economy or that organizations are ill-equipped to respond to these challenges, it really is that women’s leadership contribution and further potential is still neglected, under-identified and insufficiently integrated into the management structures per se (Segal, 1999).
Zeleza (2006:195) states that African research – the development of African knowledge – features concrete and conceptual, and materials and moral contexts which develop the (leadership) variations that are so evident across the world and across disciplines. Therefore the African research centres or structures have to be reinforced and supported in order that a modification in perception on females leadership can occur.
In comparison with the feminist focus on policy influencing practice, latest leadership with the focus on fluidity and productive communication skills offers potentially considerably more interesting avenues for understanding complexity where women are valued as leader potentials as they are seen to have skills in employee and customer care as well as the required skills to undertake emotional function and leadership administration (Polnick et al; Ritt, 2004)
The ”glass cliff” concept (Ryan and Haslam, 2007) stresses that women are often brought into major leadership positions where men have failed and the problem is nearly irredeemable. This precarious context helps it be doubly problematic for women to succeed, a lot more so when they are often judged by different criteria in comparison to their male counterparts.
Motivation of Women Leaders
Women leaders and business owners are mostly motivated by the need for independence (Hisrich and Brush 1986). Lee-Gosselin and Grise (1990, p. 432) noted that for girls companies, the idea to start out a business originates almost specifically from the desire to fulfil an old dream, a desire to have acknowledgement by others, the desire to put one’s knowledge and abilities to use, a continuity to training or work knowledge, or the need to be independent and also have control over one’s lifestyle.
According to Teo (1996) ,the five major factors which best motivate feminine leaders and business owners specifically are: the perceived occurrence of a business opportunity, the desire to place their knowledge and abilities into use, the necessity for freedom and overall flexibility, the desire to accomplish personal growth and reputation; and the need to make more money for financial independence
Moreover, it had been the prospective female leaders own private decision to dare and break the cup ceiling to get started on their own business or consider up leadership positions in fulfilling their feeling of self-worth, and not the influence of family and friends, that encouraged how to write an academic paper fast and successfully them; with secondary importance directed at being recognized, seizing work at home opportunities, being influenced by family and friends, feeling dissatisfied at work, wanting to be one’s private boss, and wanting an income (Fried 1989).
Challenges of women in leadership position in the corporate world
Male supremacy challenge
Male supremacy can be a universal concept that is not unique to Ghana. This can be a pillar upon that your nation was founded, the government was proven, and the constitution developed. It influences formal and informal relationships among people in public and exclusive spheres of existence. Although women have been participating in higher education for greater than a century and also have certainly made wonderful strides towards occupying their rightful place within academia, they continue to face a myriad of personal and professional difficulties (Gregory, 2001). Researchers have documented a multitude of barriers encountered by feminine students, faculty, and staff (Bonner & Thomas, 2001). Extra specifically, several researchers have reported results of co-occurring discrimination related to race and gender (Zamani, 2003), insufficient support systems and networks (Patton & Harper, 2003), and unwelcoming, insensitive, and isolative environments.
Despite the nation’s evolving feeling of morality and consciousness and despite years of legislative and regulatory initiatives to handle oppression and discrimination, access to certain levels of electric power or leadership stay unequal for girls (Glazer – Raymo, 1999)
The glass ceiling challenge
For years, women have
been fighting within all sorts of organizations for equivalent roles in the workplace, equal purchase equal work, and equal respect alongside their man counterparts. Some say these barriers which are often resources of stressors that once existed for women in the workplace have since been broken down. Others say these walls remain firmly standing and that many women are no more ready to fight this struggle (Moore & Buttner, 1997). Actually many female workers are contacting it quits regarding the attempt to succeed equally alongside their male counterparts particularly within the original "old boy’s network" type organization. Instead, many women are starting their personal traditions, their own method, within their own organizations. Women’s opinions about the sources of glass ceilings are often reported in qualitative research (e.g.,Kumra and Vinnicombe, 2008; Mathur-Helm, 2006; Wrigley, 2002). Three qualitative studies standout for his or her thoroughness. Morrison, White and Van Velsor (1992) interviewed 82 managers at Fortune 100 companies, mainly from mid-management levels, and Goward (2001) interviewed 32 self-employed Australian women of all ages who had been winners of the prestigious Telstra Awards which are given annually to recognise huge achievers in Australian organization. Natural stone (2007) reported the outcomes of detailed interviews with 54 girls who opted out of visible careers to focus on family life. She found a significant reason for this life switch was the refusal of husbands to change their own careers (Rock, 2007).
The organizational culture challenge
With respect to work scenario, Adler (1993) noted a male dominated organizational culture can be an obstacle to women’s achievement. That is partly because women find it difficult to enter the "old males" network (Davidson & Cooper, 1992; Marshall, 1984), specifically in non Western ‘traditional’ cultures like that of Ghana (Cheng & Liao, 1994).
According to Kanter’s (1997) theory of sex discrimination, structural characteristics (e.g. length of career ladder and amount of male – dominated hierarchical amounts) assist men’s rather than women’s career advancement. Daddy, gender bias (i.e. favouring men) in training and development activities constitutes a barrier to women’s career victory. (ILO 1997; Izraeli & Adler, 1994) Part of the organizational culture may be the attitude of "decision-building" towards ladies in management. There exists a higher odds of discrimination against females through human resource management practices such as for example selection, functionality appraisal, and training and development. Regarding family situation, exploration indicates that women’s professions suffer if they are married and also have children (Davidson & Cooper, 1987).
The Gender diversity and leadership challenge
Mays et al, (2007) also maintains that ladies leaders will be challenged by the physiological and psychological impacts of gender discrimination which can create negative health issues and to a big extent decreased life expectancy.
Women are often regarded as nurturers, child bearers and home manufacturers making their visibility as professionals and effective leaders more obscure and therefore isolated; consequently a woman leader does not get credit for her achievements despite her effectiveness.
Women also continue to suffer ostracism from their co-workers and superiors. Research conducted by Patitu and Hinton (2003) revealed identical habits of isolation among the women faculty and administrators in their study. The women in their review reported that they experienced marginalization and insufficient support from both their peers and managers. For instance, some of these ladies reported getting sexually harassed by an instantaneous supervisor, getting denied budgetary assets, and being ignored and/or alienated altogether.
In Ghana traditional functions are in a way that women are primarily in charge of family care, where the family includes partner and children along with parents and in-regulations. Any activity including do the job that could endanger the family’s welfare or honour is known as inappropriate for women.
In general the culture encourages women’s participation in the workforce so long as family-life will not suffer due to women’s work (Esmer, 1991).
The Liberal feminist theory likewise explains women’s placement in society regarding unequal privileges or artificial barriers to women’s participation in the public world beyond the friends and family and home. (Schmidt and Parker, 2003) It attributes gender-based differences to variations in ability and chance accorded to people in society, this is the structural positions people occupy in society (Fischer, Reuber, and Dyke 1993). In Ghana most traditional spouse and children heads are men.
Although the idea that men and women are from diverse planets (Gray, 1992, 2008) and that their ways of top rated differ innately (e.g. Senge, 2008) is rife in popular tradition, empirical evidence does not indicate significant gender variations in leadership. In fact, the outcomes of the role of gender and leadership analysis over the last twenty years remain mainly inconsistent (for a synopsis, check out Butterfield and Grinnell, 1999; Eagly and Johannesen-Schmidt, 2007; Vecchio, 2003).
The ‘Queen Bee Syndrome’s challenge
There is also a suggestion that women might not exactly necessarily help one another in breaking through the glass ceiling. The ‘queen bee syndrome’ is utilized to recognize those women who’ve reached the top, usually in a male environment, and who in that case adopt a counter militancy methodology that is predicated on their private professional and social success Rindfleish (2000). Mavin (2006a; 2006b) suggests that competitive behaviour between women of all ages may lengthen beyond professional rivalry to add subconscious elements relating to a variety of factors such as for example age, weight and dress perception. Schein and Davidson (1993) argue that it is the established gender program, which assumes operations to come to be male that plays a part in women’s behaviour towards different women in senior management.
Success factors of women in leadership position in the organization world
The literature on women’s career achievement highlights the value of individual and situational factors (Tharenou & Conroy, 1994).
The individual factors include three issues:
Women’s attitude towards career advancement
Attitude exhibited by ladies who get ahead in their career included excessive self-efficiency, a solid desire to succeed, salient career (instead of family) identities, interior attribution to achievement, and positive attitudes towards flexibility and relocation (Greenhaus & Parasuraman, 1993.
Work related demographics
Work related demographic is significant in Ghana where socioeconomic position plays a more crucial role in deciding career success than gender. (Cheny & Liao, 1994). Research found that women with larger educational attainments (Adler, 1993) and higher socioeconomic status (Adler & Izraeli, 1994) stand a much better chance of career success. Moreover, Job relevant criteria such as having considerable work experience and knowledge, seeking difficult and great visibility assignments and continually exceeding performance requirements also determine the degree to which women of all ages are recruited for bigger placement (Adler, Brody, & Osland, 2000). According to Betz & Fitzgarald (1987), early socialization, influences women significantly, parental encouragement and maternal work have been found to positively influence women’s career success.
Another positive effect on women success element in leadership position can be that Ghana’s corporate life is relatively young and still developing hence it is difficult to acquire sufficiently qualified candidate to fill managerial positions. One sometimes appears as qualified by getting a good education, and education is accessible primarily to those of urban position and a high socio-economic status. Women job success, therefore depends generally on social school (kabasakar, 1998)
Last but not the least; organizational customs in Ghana is normally "family friendly". Paternalism is normally a salient cultural dimension in corporate Ghana (Aycan, et al, 2000); paternalism in organizations implies that there is a family, like climate organization where superiors are worried with and mixed up in professional along with personal lives of their subordinates. This makes a "family-friendly" organizational tradition where women’s must handle work and spouse and children responsibilities are comprehended and tolerated. Research also confirms that spousal support performs an essential role women’s career advancement (Riger and Galligan, 1980, King Maltimore, King & Adams)
Breaking the glass ceiling
This since record has been the most typical success factor of women in leadership positions. Ragins et al. (1998) deemed four significant strategies discovered by successful feminine senior executives and chief executives for breaking the glass ceiling. These include exceeding performance expectations; creating a style that male managers are comfortable with; seeking out difficult and challenging assignments; and having influential mentors.
Mainiero (1994) as well identifies several key success factors for women who have broken the glass ceiling. These predominantly relate to individual performance, skill advancement and acquisition of political expertise. Mainiero describes this as a political maturation process; with a woman primarily experiencing a stage in her work existence where she is oblivious to corporate politics. In the second stage – ‘building credibility’ – the girl demonstrates to her manager her ability to end up being an executive. The third stage – ‘refining style’ – indicates the process of the feminine manager developing her individual style and lastly ‘shouldering responsibility’, where she gains confidence and is regarded by others as befitting the position of executive (Mainiero 1994, p.6).
Coping strategy of women in leadership position in the organization world
Harry (1994) defines coping as any effort, mental, physical, or behavioural, to manage a stressor. "Psychological coping may involve thinking, organizing, evaluating or managing the environment. Physical coping consists of any changes that happen in the body. Behavioural coping is participating in conscious efforts and activities to improve stressful situations" (p.31).
The significant challenges can often be inherent in small figures in conjunction with institutional racial and gender inequality, have prompted women in academia to employ a number of coping strategies which have been the key to their academic and professional improvement (Bagilhole, 1994; Thomas & Hollenshead, 2001).
Specifically, corporate women connect with mentors of their academic self-discipline, establish supportive networks of co-workers in and beyond their departments and establishments, work to attain high visibility in their communities,
and rely on their personal contacts to generate beneficial professional alliances (Gregory, 2001). Research in the 1980s reported on ladies administrators’ ability to survive in hostile performing environments by making adjustments in relationships and purpose functionality (Myers, 1980; Harry, 1994).
Harry (1994) after a study on women business owners in Michigan found that most of the participants had even more externally oriented locus of control beliefs and utilized self-control, sought sociable support, and used problem solving as means of coping.
Results and Discussions
The survey uncovered that 67% of women were between the ages of 30 to 49 years (table 1). This may be attributed to the fact that lots of young women put family group and residence making before their profession in Ghana. 37% of Ladies were in leadership posture in large organizations of over 250 personnel, 27% in organisations with 50-249 staff and 36% in firm with less than 50 employees. Most the respondents 36% came from the service industries, while the male dominated industries like entrepreneurship, economic and educational experienced 12%, 11% and 16% respectively. Many women are now venturing into the manufacturing industry; that is indicated by 25% of the respondent in this market.
Table 1.0 Age group of respondents
Source: Field survey, 2011
Table 2.0 shows 61% of ladies in leadership positions include attained tertiary level in education, 21% had content graduate degrees and had been in academia and 1% of the respondents having no formal education.
Table 2.0 Respondents level of education
LEVEL OF EDUCATION
Source: Field survey, 2011
Figure 1.0 symbolizes the respondents take on what motivated them to consider up leadership positions. Majority of the respondents in the study representing 65% answered yes to self accomplishment indicating that these were motivated to consider up leadership positions by the need for self accomplishment whereas 35% answered ‘no’ indicating this is not a motivating element. This obviously contrasts with the popularised view that women of all ages are inspired by the necessity for power and control over their male counterparts. Again the effects contradict the work of Hisrich and Brush (1986) who concludes that women leaders are mostly motivated by the need for independence. The study however supports the task of Teo (1996) which arrived with self achievement as one of the five major elements that motivate ladies to consider up leadership positions.
Figure 1.0 Inspiration of Women Leaders
Source: Field survey, 2011
Commitment to personal or family group tasks rated 75% (table 3.0) as the best barrier that holds girls back their leadership job. This finding is consistent with that of Davidson & Cooper (1987) who found out through a survey that family existence served as a significant task of leadership for ladies. Stereotyping and preconceptions of women’s roles and skills was the 2nd highest barrier (73%). Minimal barrier was insufficient management skills which acquired 35%. The findings of the research as well indicate that self confidence isn’t among the major barriers to ladies leadership as identified by (Kanter, 1977; Davidson & Cooper, 1986). Today, women are much more confident about their ability to lead and indeed a lot of women in leadership usually do not see self confidence as a task in climbing the leadership ladder. The 21st century woman is very well convinced about her capabilities as against those of the 19th and 20th century. 69% of the respondents indicated these were the first female managers to occupy their positions and that they weren’t intimidated by the stiff competition they had to face from their male counter parts. Interestingly, 50% of the respondents indicated that the lack of support from fellow females was a challenge. Is it a case of ‘women of all ages are their own most severe enemies?’
Table 3.0 Main challenges
Since you Assumed Leadership Position, What Are THE PRIMARY Problems You Have Been Facing
A question of self-confidence (believing in your ability
Lack of information / advice
Lack of support from fellow women
Combining family and work life
Being a female / Gender discrimination
Source: Field survey, 2011
It will probably be worth noting that despite the challenges discussed above, women of all ages with their dedication and enthusiasm for excellence have devised several mechanisms and coping strategies in order to stick to top. The study indicated that virtually all (99%) respondents are ready to confront these challenges, the point worth emphasizing however has to do with the various tactics they employ in coping with these challenges. Effects from the survey indicated that 60% of the respondents adopted effective time control as a coping strategy with 10% adopting strategies such as engaging in activities to improve their situation when stressed out. The remaining 10 %10 % sought for caretakers to control their homes as a coping technique. For example the 60% who emphasized effective time management did imply that with effective time control, they could save period for his or her other activities such as for example family roles. This once more reinforces the actual fact that family functions of girls do serve as a great challenge to ladies in leadership in around 80% of respondents used ways of cope with this obstacle.
Most respondents representing 81% of the valid responses indicated that the ability to successfully manage others in receiving things done constitute a very important success element in their function as leaders. In the Ghanaian context women of all ages perceive success as the opportunity to manage their families, it is therefore not surprising that the capability to manage others would suffice as a critical success factor in the organization environment. 80% of the respondents relied on the expertise in specific areas.
Conclusion and Recommendations
In this study, it is found that majority of ladies in leadership are between your age bracket of 30-49. This is partly explained by the level of education attained by these women with 61% obtaining tertiary education. It as a result even more establishes that today’s contemporary society places more benefit on ability and meritocracy as against the ethics of particularistic and gender sensitivity.
The study further more established that women are motivated by their dependence on self achievement unlike earlier findings that girls are motivated by the necessity for independence. It even more recognised family and work life balance as the utmost enormous task faced by Ghanaian ladies in leadership. This displays the Ghanaian cultural system where women specifically those within the age bracket of 30-49 are anticipated to raise families alongside working hard to bring income house.
Again, it is discovered that women are focused on succeeding as leaders in the organization world and therefore are adopting many coping strategies in their bid to confront the problems militating against them. Virtually all respondents adopted one or more strategies to cope with their problems, about 80% adopted ways of confront family and function life balance. The results of this study likewise indicate that women of all ages perceive their ability to manage others effectively as a measure of success.
Based on the findings and conclusions manufactured through the data collected and analysed above different ideas have been made on how to motivate more women to defend myself against officially recognised leadership functions.
The research recommends:
The study shows there exists a positive relationship between feminine education and women in leadership. Majority of the ladies in leadership acquired tertiary education implying that considering that women are educated, additional will venture into leadership. Again most women of all ages are motivated by the necessity for self achievement, the need for self accomplishment can however be linked to a person’s level of education. The analysis therefore recommends that even more women should be given the possibility to progress their education to the tertiary level. Universities and additional tertiary establishments could institute a quota program for female students’ in order to enhance women leadership soon.
In the short run however, females who occupy higher leadership positions in organizations ought to be encouraged by ladies advocates to talk about their experience as leaders through leadership summits and workshops to help dispel the myths a woman’s place is only in the kitchen and help motivate young women prepare for the organization world of function. This may also be done by communities providing function models through the recognition of women who’ve attained leadership positions during durbars, and important functions.
Women in leadership happen to be focused on attaining corporate excellence as leaders and must be supported by the society and organisational structures to greatly help them cope. It is strongly recommended that organisations in Ghana should adopt spouse and children life friendly policies such as exist in other parts of the world i.e. USA where for instance women with nursing babies and toddlers can keep their kids within organisational premises. Again women advocates are anticipated to press home for these services as against broader problems of gender equality.
Success factors of women in leadership positions
Success in leadership is perceived quite in a different way by women, a lot of women perceived the ability to manage others successfully as achievement in leadership. It is therefore not amazing that Mary Parker Follet the renowned management theorist defined operations as the art of getting factors done through others. Within their bid to get items done through others, various perceive them to be bossy and seeking control. Hence, it is recommended that erroneous impression be eradicated through open public community forums and radio discussions. Females also needs to be encouraged by co-workers who have made it in leadership to persist within their effort to excel.
Research restrictions/implications – This study focused on women in the organization world. An identical study should be undertaken for uneducated women of all ages leaders in Little and Medium Level Enterprises (SME).
Special Issue: Darwinian Perspectives on Behavior in Organizations
Volume 27, Issue 2, web pages 143-162, March 2006